parliamentary democracy, independent nations, republics, market economy, political issues
In November 1989 massive demonstrations by citizens in cities throughout Czechoslovakia brought about the end of Communist rule. A non-Communist government took office, and the country’s new leaders began the difficult process of transforming Czechoslovakia’s political system, recreating a market economy, and reorienting foreign policy. The country’s first multiparty elections were held in June 1990.
During the early 1990s, Czech and Slovak leaders within the government began to disagree on economic and political issues. Parliamentary elections held in June 1992 brought a leftist government to power in Slovakia, while a center-right group won control of the Czech Republic. Later that year, the leaders of the two republics decided to split the federation into two independent nations. A new constitution of Slovakia, adopted on September 1, 1992, went into effect with independence in January 1993. The constitution declares Slovakia to be a parliamentary democracy. The first parliamentary elections of independent Slovakia were held in 1994.
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