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Romania, Government

President Nicolae Ceausescu, Emil Constantinescu, Ion Iliescu, multiple political parties, parliamentary republic

Between 1948 and 1989 the Communists controlled all levels of government in Romania, and the head of the Communist Party was the country’s most powerful leader. In 1989 the Romanian army joined in a popular uprising against the Communist regime. President Nicolae Ceausescu was deposed and executed, and a provisional government was established with Ion Iliescu, a former Communist, as president. In May 1990 multiparty elections were held to elect a president and national legislature. Iliescu was elected president, and his party, the National Liberation Front (NLF), gained control of the legislature. In December 1991 a new constitution was approved by popular referendum. The constitution declares Romania to be a parliamentary republic and provides for multiple political parties, a separation of powers between branches of government, a market economy, and respect for human rights. In 1996 presidential and legislative elections, the former Communists were defeated by an opposition coalition, with Iliescu losing the presidency to a reformist, Emil Constantinescu. Presidential and legislative elections in 2000 brought Iliescu and the former Communists, now calling themselves Social Democrats, back to power.

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Article key phrases:

President Nicolae Ceausescu, Emil Constantinescu, Ion Iliescu, multiple political parties, parliamentary republic, popular referendum, Romanian army, legislative elections, provisional government, national legislature, separation of powers, powerful leader, National Liberation, reformist, branches of government, NLF, Social Democrats, market economy, new constitution, Communist regime, Communist Party, Communists, levels of government, human rights, presidency, respect, head, control

 
 

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