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United States Rule, Shifting American Policies

General Leonard Wood, Sergio Osmena, Philippine politics, Jones Act, Filipino people

United States politics soon began to influence the course of events in the islands. Taft and his immediate successors were unwilling to delegate full authority to the Filipinos. With the election of Woodrow Wilson to the United States presidency in 1912, a new policy was adopted. In 1916 the Jones Act instituted an elected Philippine senate and promised eventual independence. These moves, however, were slowed with the election of Warren G. Harding as president of the United States in 1920. The following year Harding appointed a commission, headed by General Leonard Wood, to investigate the political and economic situation in the islands. The commission reported that immediate independence would be disastrous both for the Filipino people and for U.S. interests in the western Pacific. Wood, who was appointed governor-general of the Philippines in 1921, found himself bitterly opposed by the Filipino advocates of independence. The call for independence was led within the political establishment by Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina, president of the Philippine Senate; Sergio Osmena, speaker of the House of Representatives before 1922; and Manuel Roxas y Acuna, the speaker after 1922. These politicians belonged to the Nationalist Party, which dominated Philippine politics from its founding in 1907 until the emergence of the Liberal Party after World War II ended in 1945.



Article key phrases:

General Leonard Wood, Sergio Osmena, Philippine politics, Jones Act, Filipino people, United States politics, Nationalist Party, political establishment, Taft, western Pacific, House of Representatives, governor-general, World War, economic situation, Filipinos, islands, founding, new policy, Philippines, emergence, commission, moves, speaker, politicians, authority, course of events, president, interests, Liberal Party

 
 

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