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United States Rule, Commonwealth of the Philippines

Philippine exports, Philippine Senate, Philippine independence, Osmena, independent republic

With the election of Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1932 as president of the United States, the official policy changed once again. On January 13, 1933, the Congress of the United States passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting Bill granting Philippine independence after 12 years, but reserving military and naval bases for the United States and imposing tariffs and quotas on Philippine exports. The bill was rejected by Quezon for domestic political advantage. The Philippine Senate then advocated a new bill that won Roosevelt’s support. The resulting Tydings-McDuffie Act of 1934 stipulated that the Philippines would become an independent republic on July 4, 1946. Until then a commonwealth government, with a constitution and an elected Filipino president, would have autonomy in all affairs except foreign policy. In November 1935 the commonwealth government was inaugurated with Quezon as president and Osmena as vice president.



Article key phrases:

Philippine exports, Philippine Senate, Philippine independence, Osmena, independent republic, naval bases, commonwealth government, quotas, new bill, Quezon, autonomy, foreign policy, constitution, Philippines, vice president, Congress, affairs, United States, years

 
 

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