Economy, Forestry and Fishing
milkfish, skipjack tuna, Indian mackerel, scad, forestland
About three-fifths of Indonesia is covered with forest and woodland, most of which is concentrated in Kalimantan, Sumatra, and eastern Indonesia. Most forestland is state-owned, and forestry accounts for about 1 percent of Indonesia’s GDP. Roundwood production totaled 191 million cubic meters (6.7 billion cubic feet) in 2000. Almost all of the timber harvested was hardwood, more than four-fifths of which was used for fuel. In addition, valuable industrial woods were produced in large quantities, including teak, ebony, bamboo, and rattan. Indonesia is the world’s leading exporter of plywood. Many forestry companies defy government regulations for harvesting; as a result, rapid deforestation and overexploitation of timber stands are growing concerns in Indonesia.
About 90 percent of Indonesian fishers use traditional methods such as hooks and lines, traps, and various forms of nets. These fishers eat their catch or sell it locally. The remaining 10 percent of fishers practice commercial fishing. They use large boats and export much of their catch, which accounts for more than half of Indonesia’s total catch. In 1997 the fish catch totaled 4.4 million metric tons, about three-quarters of which was the product of sea fisheries and one-quarter inland fisheries. The fisheries made up about 1.8 percent of GDP and 3.8 percent ($1.4 billion) of exports. Shrimp and prawns, scad, carp, Indian mackerel, goldstripe sardinella, milkfish, anchovies, and skipjack tuna were the chief catches. Indonesia’s main fishing grounds are the shallow, warmer coastal waters along the northern rim of Sumatra and Java.
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